This is a detailed and practical roadmap for providing 100% of Australia’s electricity from renewables. The plan uses mostly wind and solar generators, geographically dispersed around an improved national grid. It allows for electricity demand in 2020 to be 40% greater than in 2008, sufficient to replace all fossil fuel use, including heating and transport as they move to electricity. The plan shows that this is technically feasible and affordable, will improve grid reliability and can be completed within a decade using commercially available technology.
(The Stationary Energy Plan: August 2010: Beyond Zero Emissions)
- Build electricity generators using “concentrating solar thermal with heat storage” technology to supply about 58% of Australian electricity. These generators use sunlight to heat molten salt. The molten salt stores the heat, which can then be used, as needed, to boil water which drives steam turbines generating electricity. This is established technology, already used overseas, at the Gemasolar plant in Spain, and the Crescent Dunes plant in Nevada USA. They generate electricity on demand day or night, providing a secure energy supply.
- Build wind turbines to supply about 39% of the electricity
- Use hydroelectricity and the burning of crop waste to supply the remaining 2% of electricity
- Generates 325TWh per year, compared with around 200TWh per year now
- Upgrade the national electricity grid, joining several now separate grids and using HVDC
- Construction spans over ten years
Cost of implementing the plan
BZE’s initial cost estimate was:
- $ 370 billion over a ten-year period,
- $8 per household per week.
- The average $37 billion a year is about 3% of Gross Domestic Product.
- About the same as our spending on defence.
A later cost estimate in 2014 puts the cost 10% lower because:
- the expected demand for electricity has reduced since 2010 (except in Queensland and WA where a vast amount of electricity are used for liquefying LNG), and
- the expected electricity generation from domestic solar panels has increased.
The cost in 2017 will be even less, as the cost of renewables has dropped amazingly.
Modelling of the reliability of power supply
Our research included detailed modelling to guide the planned mix of generators and storage. The modelling was based on hour-by-hour data, from recent years, for electricity demand, available wind and available sunlight. It confirmed that the planned system was sufficient to reliably meet the electricity demand.
Independent research reaches similar conclusions
Since the release of the Stationary Energy Plan in 2010, two independent studies reported similar findings as the BZE research.
**** The Australian Energy Market Operator Analysis (2013)
The Australian Energy Market Operator performed its own detailed analysis. This showed that several scenarios of 100% renewables in the National Electricity Market are feasible and affordable. (AEMO Report: 2013)
Energy costs of business-as-usual no cheaper than 100% renewables
(Renew Economy: 5 August 2013)
100% renewables for Australia not so costly after all
(Renew Economy: 29 April 2013)
**** A University of New South Wales simulation study (2011)
Researchers from the University of New South Wales did a simulation study, (Elliston, Diesendorf, and MacGill: 2011). This showed that commercially available technologies could generate renewable electricity to meet 100% of Australian 2010 demand.
Benefits of this strategic investment
This strategic investment would:
- Avoid the fuel costs of future electricity generation from coal, gas and diesel
- Decrease the cost to Australia of petrol, diesel and gas used for transport, as electric transport increases
- Reduce the costs, to electricity generators, of any future price on carbon dioxide emissions
- Reduce the health hazards associated with pollutants from coal and oil, and
- Reduce the use of limited water resources
- Reduce the impacts of climate change, as similar measures are adopted around the globe
Praise from Malcolm Turnbull at the launch
At the launch in 2010, the now Prime Minister, Malcolm Turnbull, said:
“I believe our long-term global goal is to, very substantially, reduce our emissions, a goal that will require almost all of our energy to be produced from zero, or very near zero, emission sources … The work they [Beyond Zero Emissions and the Melbourne Energy Institute] have done is important. … It provides the most comprehensive technical blueprint yet for what our engineers, our scientists can begin to do for us tomorrow. … A zero emission future … is absolutely essential if we are to leave a safe planet to our children and the generations that come after them.”
Video of Malcolm Turnbull at the launch
Get a Copy of the Report
- Free Download:Executive Summary (6 page pdf file)
- Free Download: NSW Specific Report
- Free Download: Frequently Asked Questions (pdf file)
- A Chinese Summary of the Report: Free Download
- 点击此处下载中文摘要 (6.4 MB pdf file)
Launch and Media
Related to this plan
What have people said about the plan
Our partner in this research
Zero Carbon Australia: Stationary Energy Plan
First Edition 2010,
Second Edition August 2011
Published by the
Melbourne Energy Institute
University of Melbourne
Frequently Asked Questions
Read the Frequently Asked Questions (pdf file)
Non-technical language and diagrams further explain our plan to unhook Australia’s energy needs from fossil fuels in ten years.
The FAQ covers:
- What is the basis for the costs in the Plan?
- Can it really get that cheap?
- Can renewable energy really supply 100% of demand reliably?
- Is 17 hours storage enough?
- What if there are several cloudy days in a row?
- What about other renewables, e.g. geothermal, wave, offshore wind?
- Why only wind power and concentrating solar thermal?
- What about other zero emission energy technologies?
- How Australia’s energy use can go from almost 4000 PJ/yr, to less than 2000
- How can this be done without decreasing our quality of life?
- Isn’t wind too variable?
- Won’t it always require backup?
- What about the extra investments that need to be made in efficiency and electrification?
- How will an electric transport system work?
- What about long-distance transport?
- Don’t electric vehicles have a poor range?
- What about the local environmental impacts on land and water use
- Could you get it done in ten years?
- Wind farms and transmission lines currently take several years just to get through the planning & permitting stages?
- What about people working in traditional fossil fuel industries?
Donate to support BZE’s research and advocacy
Our research is showing that Australia can rapidly move to a zero carbon emissions economy. We can become a renewable energy superpower, grasping a secure and prosperous future. View a brief overview of our plans for this transition.
Beyond Zero Emissions is having impact, for example: (1) Our 2012 report, Repowering Port Augusta, and our advocacy eventually led to the 2017 $680 million contract for a solar thermal plant in South Australia, and (2) BZE has been ranked as one of the best independent think tanks in the world, by the Lauder Institute in Pennsylvania USA.
Do consider donating to support our research and advocacy.